“For decades, the C and C++ standards treated multi-threading and concurrency as something existing outside the standard sphere – in that “target-dependent” world of shades which the “abstract machine” targeted by the standards doesn’t cover. The immediate, cold-blooded replies of “C++ doesn’t know what a thread is” in mountains of mailing list and newsgroup questions dealing with parallelism will forever serve as a reminder of this past.
But all of that came to an end with C++11. The C++ standards commitee realized the language won’t be able to stay relevant for much longer unless it aligns itself with the times and finally recognizes the existence of threads, synchronization mechanisms, atomic operations and memory models – right there in the standard, forcing C++ compiler and library vendors to implement these for all supported platforms. This is, IMHO, one of the biggest positive changes in the avalanche of improvements delivered by the C++11 edition of the language.
This post is not a tutorial on C++11 threads, but it uses them as the main threading mechanism to demonstrate its points. It starts with a basic example but then quickly veers off into the specialized area of thread affinities, hardware topologies and performance implications of hyperthreading. It does as much as feasible in portable C++, clearly marking the deviations into platform-specific calls for the really specialized stuff…”