Cuckoo filter is a Bloom filter replacement for approximated set-membership queries. Cuckoo filters support adding and removing items dynamically while achieving even higher performance than Bloom filters. For applications that store many items and target moderately low false positive rates, cuckoo filters have lower space overhead than space-optimized Bloom filters. Some possible use-cases that depend on approximated set-membership queries would be databases, caches, routers, and storage systems where it is used to decide if a given item is in a (usually large) set, with some small false positive probability. Alternatively, given it is designed to be a viable replacement to Bloom filters, it can also be used to reduce the space required in probabilistic routing tables, speed longest-prefix matching for IP addresses, improve network state management and monitoring, and encode multicast forwarding information in packets, among many other applications.
Cuckoo filters provide the flexibility to add and remove items dynamically. A cuckoo filter is based on cuckoo hashing (and therefore named as cuckoo filter). It is essentially a cuckoo hash table storing each key’s fingerprint. Cuckoo hash tables can be highly compact, thus a cuckoo filter could use less space than conventional Bloom filters, for applications that require low false positive rates (< 3%).
For details about the algorithm and citations please refer to the original research paper, “Cuckoo Filter: Better Than Bloom” by Bin Fan, Dave Andersen and Michael Kaminsky.