Node.js Express API Development Security Checklist

The folks at RisingStack have published a really good article on security in Node.js applications and this checklist is meant to complement it with specifics for API development using the express framework.

  • [ ] Secure headers: use helmet, especially to set the Strict Transport Security header which will keep all your connections on HTTPS. Also see here on how to setup https using a free certificate from letsencrypt.
  • [ ] Log all errors but don’t expose stacktraces to the client.
  • [ ] Rate limit api calls to protect against DoS attacks. Can use expres-rate-limit.
  • Sanitize all user input
    • [ ] Sql injection: use prepared statements in favor of concatenating user input. For e.g.
      app.get('/', function(req, res) {
        Promise.using(getSqlConnection(), function(connection) {
          var sql = 'SELECT * from users where id = "' + req.query.username + '"';
          return connection.queryAsync(sql, [id])
            .then(function(rows, cols) {
              return rows;

      can be hijacked to /?username=anything%22%20OR%20%22x%22%3D%22x which results in the following sql query being executed: select * from users where id = "anything" OR "x"="x". This will always result in true and return data for all the users in the system. This can be further extended to cause a lot more damage.

    • [ ] XSS: prevent the ability of an attacker to inject arbitary code into your application by sanitizing user input. For e.g. the following end point which accepts user input
      app.get('/', function(req, res) {
        var html = 'Hello ' + req.query.username;

      can then be hijacked to create a url as follows /?username=%3Cbody%20onload%3Dalert(%27test1%27)%3E. This link can then be sent to unsuspecting users of your website and have arbitary code being executed on their machine. See here for more types of XSS attacks and examples.

    • [ ] Command injection: for example, a url like could be turned into
    • [ ] MongoDb query injection: similar to sql injection but using MongoDb’s special operators instead. As an example consider the following end point'/', function (req, res) {
        db.users.find({username: req.body.username, password: req.body.password}, function (err, users) {
            // TODO: handle the rest

      where sending in

      POST http://target/ HTTP/1.1
      Content-Type: application/json
          "username": "",
          "password": {"$gt": ""}

      will result in a successful match. Use mongo-express-sanitize to sanitize all user input.

    • [ ] Regex Denial of Service: a situation where user inputted regex can lead to blocking the event loop and a hanging application. See here for examples.
  • [ ] Use TLS for all connections. Also see here on how to setup https using a free certificate from letsencrypt.
  • [ ] Keep dependencies updated to stay ahead of any security issues. Use nsp to check dependencies for security vulnerabilities. Another great platform for open source projects is
  • [ ] Check for permissions at every step of the API chain: for e.g. GET /users/:userId/contacts/:contactId should not assume that the userId authenticated for the request is also authorized to make this call. Check that request.params.userId === request.authenticatedUserId or isAuthorized(authenticatedUserId, {userId: authenticatedUserId, resource: 'CONTACTS'}.
  • [ ] Don’t block the event loop: as an example parsing json is not a free operation and can potentially block the event loop for large json files (> 1Mb). Note that using the bodyparser module globally will give you a default maximum of 100kb for json payloads. It is efficient to only use it for routes which require it.

Please note that this checklist is meant to be used as a reference for further study. It is by no means an exhaustive list of all potential security issues. See also the web developer security checklist. Additions and comments are welcome.