structslop: static analyzer for efficient struct packing for Go

TL;DR: at Orijtech, Inc., we’ve developed a first of its kind static analyzer, “structslop” that examines and recommends optimal struct field arrangements in your Go programs; it’ll help you reduce RAM consumed by offending structs, making your programs more efficient! High performance systems require efficiency in every aspect, and our work can help out!

https://medium.com/orijtech-developers/efficient-struct-packing-guided-pass-for-go-92255872ec72

https://github.com/orijtech/structslop

Manual Memory Management in Go using jemalloc

Dgraph Labs has been a user of the Go language since our inception in 2015. Five years and 200K lines of Go code later, we’re happy to report that we are still convinced Go was and remains the right choice. Our excitement for Go has gone beyond building systems, and has led us to even write scripts in Go that would typically be written in Bash or Python. We find that using Go has helped us build a codebase that is clean, readable, maintainable and – most importantly – efficient and concurrent.

However, there’s one area of concern that we have had since the early days: memory management. We have nothing against the Go garbage collector, but while it offers a convenience to developers, it has the same issue that other memory garbage collectors do: it simply cannot compete with the efficiency of manual memory management.

When you manage memory manually, the memory usage is lower, predictable and allows bursts of memory allocation to not cause crazy spikes in memory usage. For Dgraph using Go memory, all of those have been a problem1. In fact, Dgraph running out of memory is a very common complaint we hear from our users.

Languages like Rust have been gaining ground partly because it allows safe manual memory management. We can completely empathize with that.

In our experience, doing manual memory allocation and chasing potential memory leaks takes less effort than trying to optimize memory usage in a language with garbage collection2. Manual memory management is well worth the trouble when building database systems that are capable of virtually unlimited scalability.

Our love of Go and our need to avoid Go GC led us to find novel ways to do manual memory management in Go. Of course, most Go users will never need to do manual memory management; and we would recommend against it unless you need it. And when you do need it, you’ll know.

In this post, I’ll share what we have learned at Dgraph Labs from our exploration of manual memory management, and explain how we manually manage memory in Go.

https://dgraph.io/blog/post/manual-memory-management-golang-jemalloc/

How we tracked down (what seemed like) a memory leak in one of our Go microservices

A blog special from the Detectify backend team:

The backend developer team at Detectify has been working with Go for some years now, and it’s the language chosen by us to power our microservices. We think Go is a fantastic language and it has proven to perform very well for our operations. It comes with a great tool-set, such as the tool we’ll touch on later on called pprof.

However, even though Go performs very well, we noticed one of our microservices had a behavior very similar to that of a memory leak.

In this post we will go step-by-step through our investigation of this problem, the thought process behind our decisions and the details needed to understand and fix the problem.

Python and Go

In a previous post we used gRPC to call Python code from Go. gRPC is a great framework, but there is a performance cost to it. Every function call needs to marshal the arguments using protobuf, make a network call over HTTP/2, and then un-marshal the result using protobuf.

In this blog post, we’ll get rid of the networking layer and to some extent, the marshalling. We’ll do this by using cgo to interact with Python as a shared library.

I’m not going to cover all of the code in detail in order to keep this blog size down. You can find all the code on github and I did my best to provide proper documentation. Feel free to reach out and ask me questions if you don’t understand something.

And finally, if you want to follow along, you’ll need to install the following (apart from Go):

  • Python 3.8
  • numpy
  • A C compiler (such as gcc)…

https://www.ardanlabs.com/blog/2020/09/using-python-memory.html

How CockroachDB Wrote a Massive & Complex Go Application

Garbage Collection in Go

In this talk Ben Darnell, the CTO and Co-Founder of Cockroach Labs, discusses the decision to utilize Go in CockroachDB. Ben shares how CockroachDB optimized its memory usage to mitigate issues related to garbage collection and improved its use of channels to avoid deadlocks. Ben also shares creative techniques to integrate non-Go dependencies into the Go build process.

Garbage collection in Go can cause an application to pause which is a concerning issue, but Go also makes a lot of manual tweaks available that allow contol of what actually ends up on top of the garbage heap. Here are two of the optimizations made by CockroachDB to mitigate garbage collection issues:

  • Combining Allocations
  • sync.Pool

By vitrue of these two practices (which you can see examples of in the video) CockroachDB sees in Go’s benchmarking tools that no new allocations are done per iteration. Everything is allocated up front and cached. 

https://www.cockroachlabs.com/community/tech-talks/challenges-writing-massive-complex-go-application/

Containers the hard way: Gocker: A mini Docker written in Go

They are popular and they are misunderstood. Containers have become the default way applications are packaged and run on servers, initially popularized by Docker. Now, Docker itself is misunderstood. It is the name of a company and a command (a suite of commands, rather) that allow you to manage containers (create, run, delete, network) easily. Containers themselves however, are created from a set of operating system primitives. In this article, we shall concern ourselves with containers on the Linux operating system and simply act as though containers on Windows do not exist at all.

There is no single system call under Linux that creates containers. They are a loose construct made by utilizing Linux namespaces and control groups or cgroups…


https://unixism.net/2020/06/containers-the-hard-way-gocker-a-mini-docker-written-in-go/